Internet!

Internet..which simply means network of interconnected devices.

Most people think that Internet is kind of a hub, but its not. Internet is more complex to understand than to use it.

So internet is not actually a hub, there is not a single server which can serve whole internet. Internet is more of a one to many relation thingy… Server serves to more than one client at a time, but connection between individual client and server is peer to peer. So actually the flow of site request goes as – Client–>DNS (Domain Name Server)–> Server–> Back to client.

When you write site address(URL) in browser, what happens is your browser sends a request to DNS to get the IP address of server, DNS then resolves IP and sends IP to browser which then establishes TCP connection with server . Then on receiving request of client, server sends its data back to client. This is it, sounds simple process but a lot more happens under the hood.

Also, www(World Wide Web) which one writes in browser is actually a information space where media, documents are identified by URL(Uniform Resource Locator). www was first created at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. It was first used to transfer data between two computers.

DNS (Domain Name Server) – DNS is actually kind of a mediator between client and server. Thing is, Server is hosted on an IP address but remembering IP address is quite difficult so what DNS does is, it links domain name(site name) with its IP address. So when you type domain name in browser it sends to DNS and then DNS resolves IP and provides that IP to browser. There are many free public DNS available like Google Public DNS (IPv4 – 8.8.8.8), OpenDNS (IPv4 – 208.67.222.222), etc.

IP (Internet Protocol) Address –¬†IP address is a numerical label assigned to each device which is connected to a network and uses internet protocol to communicate with network. There are two IP versions :

  1. IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) : IPv4 address are 32bit long, thus total number of unique possible addresses are 2^32. Its in format of eg: 123.456.789.123. There are 4 octets, each octet is of 8 bit thus total summing up to 32 bits. IPv4 has many protocols which serves unique purposes, eg: TCP, UDP, etc.
  2. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) : IPv6 is most recent version of Internet Protocol, it uses 128bit address, thus allowing 2^128 possible unique addresses. IPv6 is better in many ways then IPv4, including but not limited to Security, Payload size, Address space, etc.

 

Android!

Android.. heard of it? Most people have, but very few people know about it in detail (excluding nerds of course :p).

It is one of the most used and most popular Operating System for Mobile Phones on this planet. It is based on modified Linux kernel and currently owned by tech giant GOOGLE. Android is an Open Source Operating System that means its source code can be downloaded by anyone and one can also edit it to suite one’s need. It is written in JAVA (UI), C (core), C++ and other language. One of the reasons Android is popular and common OS is due to its open source code so any company can customize its features according to their needs, there is no restriction. But this “open-sourceness” comes with a well known risk, i.e Security and Privacy. Latest versions provide better protection to malware than earlier versions. Although most android devices can be hacked easily using malware and spyware. Currently most used android version is Nougat (7.0,7.1) with usage share of 28.5%. In terms of Security, it lags behind iOS as iOS is proprietary mobile OS by Apple Inc. To protect your android phone just install a good antivirus/anti-malware application from play store and DO NOT install app from 3rd Party stores.

Still, as per price point of view Android is far cheaper than iOS.

As they say “iPhone ke GST me to ek VIVO milta hai :p”.

Engineering

What is engineering? Engineering was one of the most respected branch of science. It involves studying real life issues and resolving them using math and physics. It involves study of higher math and basic machines (eg- IC engine, Lathe machine,etc.), analyzing forces acting on them, integrating all the forces, etc.. etc.. (<-This is what engineers call AN IDEAL definition).

Reality–

Engineering is least respected branch, its more like an OPTION to students who gets less marks. Especially Mechanical engineering. Nevertheless colleges teach to students, still Engineering now, is writing tonnes of ASSIGNMENTS (which we never read) , appearing for VIVA…..sorry I mean RE-VIVA (even if we answer all questions correctly in first attempt). VIVA day is more like REVENGE day for all teachers where they ask questions which they never taught (I remember a que asked to me in viva:”Which place is famous in Ahmedabad?”).

Before, there were 5 engineers in 100 people . NOW, mostly every family have an engineer.

People forget that all tech  developed today is by engineers.

 

TORRENT

TORRENT…

We hear this word daily….Torrent..It is a P2P file sharing protocol.So What is P2P?

P2P is peer-to-peer connection. As the name says, the connection between both devices is direct, there is no in-between server. Another example of P2P connection we use daily is WiFi-Direct (i.e Xender, ShareIT,etc. softwares use WiFi Direct). Unlike Xender like apps, torrent needs internet connection to transfer data cause its shared over WAN (wide area network).

TORRENT is a file extension for a BitTorrent file format used by BitTorrent clients. Torrent files contain text and point out the trackers for a download to begin downloading from distributors (known as seeders) and requesting clients.

There are terms like Seeders, Leachers, Peers in torrents…

Seeder is someone from whom you can download a piece of file. Hence they affect the overall availability of file on P2P network.
Leecher is someone who has downloaded a file but is not sharing it back to P2P network. Hence, overall availability of file decreases. (I am a Leecher :p)
Peer is someone who is involved in file sharing activity.

So basically more the peers, seeders, more the availability of file. Also sometimes seeders have less upload speed than downloader’s download speed. In such situations more seeders are needed to download file faster.

To use torrent, one needs to download Client software. There are many ¬†Torrent client available like BitTorrent, uTorrent, Vuze Leap, etc. Also if someone doesn’t want to download client can use online cloud torrent services.

Torrents are useful but personally I don’t like it cause it basically reveals your public IP and port used by client. And trust me that info is enough to doom someone…. To be safe from this use Online Cloud torrent services or use VPN.

There is also another type of sharing service… Its called UseNET.. Only major difference is UseNET is not P2P, it includes intermediate server. Another MAJOR difference, UseNET is PAID…so there is not much issues using Torrent…Keep Downloading :p.

 

 

First blog

This is my first blog, so am not gonna talk technical things. To know about me, goto About Me tab. In my future blogs if you have any issues or have questions you can contact me in contact me tab. I will update my blogs at least once a week.

Live long and Prosper. — Darsh.